Metallurgical grade silicon

Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is the most abundant mineral in the earth's crust. It occurs naturally in the form of sand and quartz. Oxygen is removed from Quartz rock by reduction with carbon in an electric arc furnace to produce Metallurgical Grade Silicon (MG-Si) at around 98% purity.

Polysilicon

Polysilicon hydrochlorination process starts with the introduction of hydrogen (H2), metallurgical grade silicon (MG-Si) and silicon tetrachloride (STC) into a fluidized bed reactor, in which hydrogenation of STC and transformation of MG-Si to trichlorosilane, known as TCS (SiHCl3) (TCS) takes place.

TCS goes through several purification steps and then reacts with H2 in a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) reactors, deposits onto high grade Polysilicon rods that are crushed into chunks, separated in deferent sizes and packaged.

Ingots

Polysilicon chunks are casted into multicrystalline blocks or submitted to a recrystallization process to grow single crystal ingots.

Wafers

The blocks and/or ingot are shaped and sliced into very thin wafers using a wire saw, ensuring precise and even thickness. They are then chemically cleansed to remove any unwanted surface elements.

Solar Cells

The wafers are then processed into solar cells to create the sunlight absorption and electricity conversion functionality.

Solar Panels

Hundreds of solar cells are combined into complex clusters to increase efficiency levels. The resulting solar panels can range anywhere from a square foot to hundreds of square feet.